Adhesive capsulitis or frozen shoulder has different causes, but before we get into that, let’s look at the two different types of frozen shoulder.
The Two Types of Frozen Shoulder
Frozen shoulder can be classified into two types: primary frozen shoulder and secondary frozen shoulder.
- The primary frozen shoulder does not have an initiating event or cause. It has been suggested that frozen shoulders may be attributed to specific genetic abnormalities (Roy, 2012). Cultures of the tissue obtained from the glenohumeral joint capsules of patients with frozen shoulders revealed aberrations involving chromosome 7 or 8 in the fibroblasts.
- Secondary frozen shoulder is often linked to a significant event, such as trauma, surgery, illness, or infection. Overall, secondary frozen shoulder is caused by any condition affecting the shoulder that results in inflammation of the joint capsule. This causes the formation of scar tissue, thickening, and the eventual shrinkage of the capsule that envelopes the glenohumeral joint. These changes leave less room for the humerus to move, thus, limiting the movement of the joint.
To be more concise, a frozen shoulder may be caused by any injury involving the shoulder joint. The outcome of these changes in the shoulder causes pain and tightens and restricts the joint’s movement.
Shoulder Injuries that Could Lead to Frozen Shoulder
The following injuries have been associated with frozen shoulder:
- Shoulder tendinitis. This frequently involves inflammation of the biceps tendon or rotator cuff tendon. Tendons are tough fibrous tissues that connect a muscle to a bone. In this condition, the tendon involved is usually red, sore, and swollen. Shoulder tendinitis is commonly caused by an injury, overuse of or repetitive shoulder motion, infection of the tendon, or chronic inflammation of the tendon which could occur with rheumatoid arthritis.
- Shoulder bursitis. As previously discussed, the bursa is a sac-like structure that functions as a cushion between bones and tendons. This fluid-filled sac also serves as a shock absorber between bones and muscles around the joint. The bursa is filled with synovial fluid that is used to lubricate the articulating joints. Shoulder bursitis involves inflammation of the bursa in the shoulder joint. Bursitis may be caused by an injury, an underlying rheumatic condition, or infection.
- Rotator cuff injury. This mainly involves irritation or damage to one of the four muscles making up the rotator cuff. An injured or damaged rotator cuff tendon may lead to frozen shoulder symptoms. These muscles work as a unit to further stabilize the shoulder joint, assisting the shoulder as it moves in different positions. Inflammation of the rotator cuff tendon, impingement of any of the four muscles of the rotator cuff, or tearing of the rotator cuff tendon causes rotator cuff syndrome.
Shoulder injury typically involves pain. Pain limits movement of the affected shoulder and may impede an individual from performing his or her usual routine. Prolonged immobilization has been connected to the frozen shoulder. The incidence of frozen shoulder is higher in patients with diabetes, especially those dependent on insulin. Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease characterized by increased blood glucose levels and is caused by the absence of or insufficient secretion of insulin. It has been suggested that excess glucose molecules stick to the collagen fibers in the joint capsule, contributing to joint stiffness (Sports Injury Clinic, 2012).
Diagnosis and Prognosis of Frozen Shoulder
Diagnosing Frozen Shoulder
Frozen shoulder syndrome is diagnosed by a physician who performs a complete medical history and conducts a thorough physical examination. Patients with signs and symptoms of frozen shoulder are often referred for an x-ray of the shoulder. The physician usually orders a magnetic resonance imaging or ultrasound in order to examine the soft tissues of the shoulder, such as the rotator cuff, or to get a deeper understand of the injury.
Common Outcome for Frozen Shoulder
The prognosis (probable outcome) for patients with frozen shoulder syndrome who receive the right treatment is generally favorable. Often times the first treatment options given are physical therapy, frozen shoulder exercises, and conservative modalities described in the next section, which all have a positive effect on frozen shoulder. Without consistent and aggressive treatment, the effects of frozen shoulder can be permanent (Shiel, 2011).
Rick Kaselj, MS.
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